These constructions have a great quality (TŰV certification) / price ratio.
Support structures are an integral part of any solar power plant. They are used to mount photovoltaic panels and sometimes inverters. When designing the solar power plant project itself, it is necessary to take into account not only the statics of the building (roof), but also the fact that maximum illumination of the solar panels must be ensured. The installation of the panels, each of which weighs approximately 20 kg, requires a proven system of secure anchoring.
The correct choice of construction is an integral part of any photovoltaic system. The structure must be efficient and applicable to most roof structures so that it is not damaged, especially due to external influences (rain, frost, water, etc.). Easy installation is a must.
Other factors influencing the design and installation of a PV plant on the roof of a building may include elements such as technology penetrations, air conditioning, ventilation, air handling, elevator shafts, etc... However, the biggest prerequisite is to meet the structural requirements of the building. Each building chosen for PV application should therefore be approached individually and the most suitable solution selected.
PV structures for rooftop applications
One type of construction for panels is a system solution for rooftop applications. These can be pitched or flat roofs for houses or other larger buildings. The main huge advantage of this system is the simplicity and speed of installation. It is the speed of work on the roof and the minimal interference with the roofing that is a big plus for the installer and the end customer.
The durability of the structure in the outdoor environment is an important aspect. Of course, the materials used must be considered in this area. The main system support profile is made of aluminium, as are the panel clamps, as most PV panels manufactured today have an aluminium protective frame. Accessories such as various roof hooks or fasteners are made of stainless steel. Thus, the construction should definitely outlast the lifetime of the panels (25 - 30 years).
Constructions for pitched roofs
The roof structure consists of several elements. An important part is the aluminium beam (profile) which forms the grid for fixing the panels above the roof. The support profiles are anchored to the roof with roof hooks. These hooks are adapted to different types of roofing materials. Of course, for standard tiles, for example, only a few tiles need to be uncovered and the hook needs to be attached to a solid structure such as the roof truss.
For roofs with corrugated boards, a solution is offered with a hook that anchors the top wave of the board directly into the truss, when the hook includes a gasket and a screw at the bottom. The height of the subsequent grid profile can then be adjusted. The panel itself is attached directly to the supporting profile using a system clamp. The fitting of both the clamp and the panels is adjustable and very easy, by tightening the Allen screw to secure the panel to the profile.
The difficulty of installation depends on the type of roofing material and truss material. Most often, the roof is made of wooden trusses, and if the roof is made of iron pipes, for example, the installation is more complicated and the design is individually tailored.
Constructions for flat (pitched) roofs
Installing PV panels on a flat roof is more convenient and easier than installing them on a pitched roof. A flat roof is usually fitted with either an aluminium structure or a so-called plastic box - a plastic tub with a 25º slope, which is loaded with sand or gravel. The photovoltaic panel is screwed onto this plastic box.
Because of the placement of the plastic box on a flat roof, no further drilling and screwing is required as in the case of installation on a pitched roof. For pitched roofs, obstacles in the form of dormers, skylights and chimneys must also be taken into account in the project design. These can obscure the area to be installed and reduce the overall area.
Thereby, the various types of full-wind systems are currently experiencing the greatest growth. Under this term, one can imagine a photovoltaic panel covered on all sides by elements forming a full-wind solution. These systems are based on classical designs for mounting PV panels on flat roofs at an optimum pitch. When using these systems, the most important thing is the design of the guide rails on the roof covering so that the resulting structure meets the structural requirements of the building. These systems have the distinct advantage of being 100% demountable after the PV plant has ceased operation.
Basic mounting system for flat roofs
Lightweight, economical and certified aluminium support structure for mounting solar panels on flat roofs. Use with SOLAR SFA 2/2 and SH aluminium profiles. Possibility of adjusting the size of the structure according to customer requirements. The advantage is high quality of workmanship, easy assembly and low price. It is also possible to solve other types of structures for flat roofs.
Constructions for integrated photovoltaics (BIPV)
Nowadays, the BIPV (or tako Roof-In) system is a new trend that is gaining more and more popularity. This is a system of photovoltaic panels that are incorporated into the roof system (or facade) at its inception, replacing part of the roof.
The biggest benefit is in the design of energy efficient new buildings. The BIPV system has a number of advantages. First of all, the cost of the roofing material is saved. Another benefit is also the aesthetic effect compared to the classic panel placement, where the PV panels are just a kind of adhesive on the roof.
Constructions for ground-mounted photovoltaic power plants
The mounting method used is usually the same as for flat roof mounting.
Mounting on positionable systems:
This is the mounting of PV panels on special positioning devices that automatically rotate to follow the sun (Tracker). It is possible to achieve about 30% higher yields, but the disadvantages are the relatively high purchase cost of the Tracker, the energy consumption for the actual operation of the Tracker and the necessary maintenance and possibility of Tracker failure.